As I was working my way through the bookcases, I came upon a book my father had brought home from China, which I hadn't looked at yet. This was The Jews in Shanghai. It had a grand total of three paragraphs of background matter, but pages of photos of the folks who immigrated to Shanghai over the century or so. The book was a bit poignant, but the title I found a bit telling: "in" rather than "of". Even after some generations of residency, the Chinese still viewed them as outsiders. It's a bit sad to realize that.